EC Project GENRES 29
Co-ordination: Elvio Bellini and Edgardo Giordani
Horticulture Department - University of Florence - Italy
"CONSERVATION, EVALUATION, EXPLOITATION AND COLLECTION OF MINOR FRUIT TREE SPECIES"
"CONSERVAZIONE, VALUTAZIONE E UTILIZZAZIONE DELLE SPECIE ARBOREE DA FRUTTO MINORI "
Giornata di studio e Mostra Pomologica (Firenze, 27 e 28 Novembre 1998)
"CONSERVACION, EVALUACION, EXPLOTACION Y COLECCION DE ESPECIES FRUTALES MENORES"
"CONSERVATION, EVALUATION, EXPLOITATION ET COLLECTION DES ESPECES FRUITIERES MINEURES"
Forewords. During the III Meeting of the Reseau Agricole Mediterraneen, held in Florence in September 1994, a working group has been created in order to collect, evaluate, manage, conserve and use collections of minor fruit trees species belonging to and cultivated in the Mediterranean basin, and namely Ficus carica (Fig), Punica granatum (Pomegranate), Diospyros kaki (Japanese Persimmon), Eryobotria japonica (Loquat), Opuntia ficus-indica and O. amyclaea (Prickly-pear), Cydonia oblonga (Quince for fruit production), Castanea sativa (European Chestnut), Pistacia vera (Pistachio), all of them already collected, and Morus alba, M. nigra, Morus spp and other Moraceae (Mulberry), Ceratonia siliqua (Carob tree), Crataegus azarolus (Azerole), Mespilus germanica (Medlar), Arbutus unedo (Strawberry tree - Madrona), Cornus mas (Cornelian cherry); Zizyphus vulgaris (Jujube) and Sorbus domestica (Sorb), still uncollected species. A project submitted to the European Commission in the frame of the European Programme on the conservation, characterization, collection and utilization of genetic resources in agriculture has been accepted and supported since April 1, 1996. At present the network is composed by 11 partners belonging to Institutions of European Mediterranean countries (6 from Italy, 2 from Spain, 2 from Greece and 1 from France).
Aims. The main objective of the project is to establish by a common strategy a basis for the conservation and utilisation of minor fruit tree species of the Mediterranean Basin, to create an European inventory and to develop a first database on germplasm collections comprehensive of both first and advanced characterisation descriptors, also linked to the agronomic evaluation of collected material. Diffusion of results will be done via different media (print, microcomputer electronic diskettes and on-line) to public or private extension services, and they will be addresses mainly to fruit growers also by means of pomological exhibitions and workshops.
All private and public Institutions, fruitgrowers, nurseries and people engaged in some extent to conservation of minor fruit tree species are invited to join this network to exchange information and propagation material. Contact points are all the 11 partners.
A first inventory of collected accessions held by the 11 partners is already available for each of the following species:
Some few accessions are already collected for:
The general rules to create the Descriptor Lists for each species were defined on a common basis during the First Meeting held at Florence. A review on already existing Descriptors of interested species was performed by interested partners and drafts of the Descriptor List for these species were settled down. They were improved in order to draw up a complete Descriptor List and they were checked and thoroughly defined during the Year II. In preparing the Descriptor Lists, a first distinction has been made between the 8 inventoried and already ex situ collected species and the other 8 secondary species. Because of the existence of a large ex situ collection of Mulberry, this species was treated as a main collected species for this purpose.
Descriptor Lists for Fig, Pomegranate, J. persimmon, Loquat, Quince, European Chestnut, Pistachio and Mulberry (only ex situ). For this group of species Descriptor Lists are divided into 3 sections, namely 1) Passport - Accession and Collection Data; 2) First Characterisation and 3) Further Characterisation and Evaluation.
The Passport - Accession and Collection Data is formed by 13 descriptors common to the 9 species (with the exception of Prickly Pear: only the first 12 Passport descriptors are common) (see List of Descriptors - Passport and First characterisation - for ex situ collected species). As a general rule, all the 4 First Characterisation descriptors are common to most of species, differing for some aspects mainly in 15-Plant use.
Descriptors regarding Further Characterisation and Evaluation were first defined in a general view, taking into account traits linked with productivity (quantitative and qualitative characteristics regarding biological, agronomic and pomological performance and also resistance to pest, diseases, stresses). Being this group of traits highly linked to each species, the General Co-ordinator gave only general suggestions to Species Co-ordinators and to Partners on this matter, giving the opportunity to adopt about 20 descriptors for Further characterisation and Evaluation. The final definition was carried on by Species Co-ordinators together with interested Partners.
Descriptor Lists have been settled down for the 8 involved species; the total number of Descriptors of each List varies with species (50 for Fig and Pomegranate, 43 for Japanese Persimmon, 42 for Loquat, 44 for Prickly Pear, 43 for Quince, 38 for European Chestnut, 46 for Pistachio and 58 for ex situ collected Mulberries)(see Attachment 1 - Descriptor Lists).
List of Descriptors (Passport and First characterisation) for ex situ collected species
PASSPORT - Accession and collection data
1 - European Minor Fruit Tree Species Database (EMFTSD) number: unique numerical identifier for an accession);
2 - Species: to be repeated for each accession (botanical name );
3 - Accession designation: name of the accession (cultivar, breeder’s designation, donor’s designation);
4 - Accession synonym: a synonym to the accession designation. For each species with synonyms, a common accession designation should be identified for each partner and then synonyms should be quoted here;
5 - Donor name: name of institution or individual responsible for donating the germplasm;
6 - Acquisition date: the date on which the accession entered the collection in the form of DDMMYYYY;
7 - Institute number: the partner number from Technical Annex of Project. The same number reported in the Institution Database file;
8 - Country keeping the accession: two letters acronym of country in which the partner and the collection is located (see attached list);
9 - Collection site: if one Institution holds accessions in more than one environmentally different field, each field should have an identifier site number;
10 - Country of origin: when certainly known two letter abbreviation (according to attached list) for country of origin of the accession; if not sure, type "uncertain";
11 - Collection source:1 = wild; 2 = abandoned farm land; 3 = farm land; 4 = nursery; 5 = institute; 6 = other (in Collector’s notes);
12 - Status of sample: 1 = wild; 2 = breeder’s line; 3 = primitive cultivar (landrace); 4 = advanced cultivar (bred); 5 = other or uncertain
13 - Virus disease status: 1 = virus disease free; 2 = virus disease present; 3 = not tested
14 - Fruit use: 0 = no use; 1 = dessert; 2 = seed production;
15 - Plant use: 0 = no use; 1 = fruit production; 2 = fruit production and pollinator; 3 = only pollinator; 4 = mother plant for seeds (rootstock); 5 = ornamental
16 - Identification of material: 1 = verified; 2 = probable; 3 = uncertain
17 - Collector’s notes
Descriptor Lists for Strawberry Tree, Cornelian cherry, Medlar, Jujube, Azerole, Sorb, Mulberry (only in situ) and Carob Tree. Descriptor Lists for non inventoried species have been prepared both for ex situ and in situ collected accessions, and they are formed by two sections: 1) Passport - Accessions and collection data and 2) Characterisation.
Passport descriptors for ex situ collected accessions are the 13 chosen for inventoried species. For in situ collected accessions Passport is formed by 16 Descriptors (see List of Descriptors - Passport - for in situ collected species).
Characterisation Descriptors are common for ex situ and in situ collected accessions and they have been chosen by Species Co-ordinator and interested Partners taking into account most important biological and productive traits of each involved species.
Descriptor Lists have been settled down for ex situ and in situ collected accessions of the 8 species; the total amount of Descriptors for each species is respectively 55 and 58 for Strawberry Tree, 32 and 35 for Cornelian cherry, 29 and 32 for Medlar, 30 and 33 for Jujube, 29 and 32 for Azerole, 26 and 29 for Sorb, 33 and 37 for Carob Tee; 58 for in situ collected accessions of Mulberry.
List of Descriptors (Passport) for in situ collected species
PASSPORT - Accession data
1 - European Minor Fruit Tree Species Database (EMFTSD) number: unique numerical identifier for an accession (see point 3 for each partner and for each species)
2 - Species: to be repeated for each accession (botanical name)
3 -Accession designation: name of the accession (cultivar, breeder’s designation, donor’s designation)
4 - Accession synonym: a synonym to the accession designation. For each species with synonyms, a common accession designation should be identified for each partner and then synonym(s) should be quoted here.
5 - Donor name: name of institution or individual responsible for donating the germplasm
6 - Acquisition date: the date on which the accession entered the collection in the form of DDMMYYYY
7 - Collection institute number: the partner number from Technical Annex of Project. The same number reported in the Institution Database file
8 - Country of collection: two letter abbreviation (see attached list) for country of origin of the accession
9 - Province-State: name of the administrative subdivision of the country in which the sample was collected
10 - Location of collection site: distance in kilometres from nearest town or village
11 - Latitude of collection site: degrees by N (North)
12 -Longitude of collection site: degrees by E (East) and W (West)(e.g. 10W)
13 - Altitude of collection site: elevation above sea level
14 - Country keeping the accession
15 - Collection source: 1 = wild; 2 = abandoned (marginal) farm land; 3 = farm land; 4 = nursery; 5 = institute; 6 = other (in Collector’s notes)
16 - Status of sample: 1 = wild; 2 = breeder’s line; 3 = primitive cultivar (landrace); 5 = advanced cultivar (bred); 6 = other or uncertain.
The European Minor Fruit Tree Species Database (EMFTSD) has been created for all collected and uncollected species with Microsoft Access software. Most common queries have been generated and data can been selected trough different entries, and namely:
1 - Crop Type (including all species involved in the Project) and Typology of Data (Passport Data or First Characterisation Data or Further Characterisation and Evaluation or All data for in situ and ex situ collected accessions).
2 - Type of collection (Only ex situ collected accessions, Only in situ collected accessions, Both ex and in situ collected accessions) for all crops based on common Descriptors.
3 - Data on Institutions (data regarding each partner and curator) and Environment (data regarding climate and soil for each site of collection).
4 - Data on Statistics (percentage of collected data for different categories).
Dr. E. Giordani
Horticulture Department - University of Florence
Viale delle Idee 30 – 50018 Sesto Fiorentino (FI) - Italy
Tel. ++39-055-4574000 (050 direct) - Fax: ++39-055-4574017
These pages will be regularly updated with new results